significance of zinc
Zinc is a common environmental contaminant, because it is sprayed on cars to prevent rust. [, U.S. Food and Drug Administration. [, Krebs NF. [, Hambidge KM, Krebs NF. Supplements contain several forms of zinc, including zinc gluconate, zinc sulfate, and zinc acetate. Oral zinc for arterial and venous leg ulcers. Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada: vegetarian diets. [, Wester PO. J Am Coll Nutr 1993;12:26-30. The most common zinc ore is sphalerite (zinc blende), a zinc sulfide mineral. Aside from dietary zinc supplementation, zinc has been st… Interestingly, zinc enhances the stereoselectivity of the polymerization of nucleotides under reaction conditions designed to simulate the environment for prebiotic reactions. [, Spain RI, Leist TP, De Sousa EA. Thus it is premature to exclude the possibility of Ni-proteins in animals. Sometimes equivalent reactions are catalyzed by proteins with different metal centers; the metal binding sites and proteins have evolved separately for each type of metal center. [, Lewis MR, Kokan L. Zinc gluconate: acute ingestion. [, Prasad AS. ABSTRACT. Prolonged use of thiazide diuretics could deplete zinc tissue levels, so clinicians should monitor zinc status in patients taking these medications. Research has not determined whether differences exist among forms of zinc in absorption, bioavailability, or tolerability. In others it plays a role in conformational stability. 2011 Feb 16;2:CD001364. The ULs do not apply to individuals receiving zinc for medical treatment, but such individuals should be under the care of a physician who monitors them for adverse health effects. Zinc absorption in inflammatory bowel disease. In proteins, vanadium is a cofactor in an algal bromoperoxidase and in certain prokaryotic nitrogenases. Zinc deficiency causes alterations in immune response that probably contribute to increased susceptibility to infections, such as those that cause diarrhea, especially in children . The cobalt in vitamin B12 is coordinated to five N atoms, four contributed by a tetrapyrrole (corrin); the sixth ligand is C, provided either by C5 of deoxyadenosine in enzymes such as methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (fatty acid metabolism) or by a methyl group in the enzyme that synthesizes the amino acid methionine in bacteria. )%2F01%253A_Transition-Metal_Storage_Transport_and_Biomineralization%2F1.01%253A_Biological_Significance_of_Iron_Zinc_Copper_Molybdenum_Cobalt_Chromium_Vanadium_and_Nickel, 1: Transition-Metal Storage, Transport, and Biomineralization, information contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org, status page at https://status.libretexts.org. A meta-analysis of the effects of oral zinc in the treatment of acute and persistent diarrhea. A systematic literature review. Zinc is important for growth and for the development and health of body tissues. [, Bahl R, Bhandari N, Hambidge KM, Bhan MK. Breast milk provides sufficient zinc (2 mg/day) for the first 4–6 months of life but does not provide recommended amounts of zinc for infants aged 7–12 months, who need 3 mg/day [2,36]. Zinc requirements and the risks and benefits of zinc supplementation. [, Wilkinson EA, Hawke CI. 1995 update. Zinc is a mineral. Lutein + zeaxanthin and omega-3 fatty acids for age-related macular degeneration: the Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) randomized clinical trial. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. This is a fact sheet intended for health professionals. [, Prasad AS. January 2011; Journal of Clinical Toxicology s3(01) DOI: 10.4172/2161-0495.S3-001. Dermatology 1996;193:361-3. These alterations in immune function might explain why low zinc status has been associated with increased susceptibility to pneumonia and other infections in children in developing countries and the elderly [55-58]. Third Report on Nutrition Monitoring in the United States. However, use of stored iron is reduced by copper deficiency, which suggests that iron metabolism may depend on copper proteins, such as the serum protein ceruloplasmin, which can function as a ferroxidase, and the cellular protein ascorbic acid oxidase, which also is a ferrireductase. [, Van Wouwe JP. Gastrointestinal surgery and digestive disorders (such as ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, and short bowel syndrome) can decrease zinc absorption and increase endogenous zinc losses primarily from the gastrointestinal tract and, to a lesser extent, from the kidney [2,29,38,39]. It is required for the catalytic activity of approximately 100 enzymes [1,2] and it plays a role in immune function [3,4], protein synthesis , wound healing , DNA synthesis [2,4], and cell division . The effects of zinc supplementation on diarrhea in children with adequate zinc status, such as most children in the United States, are not clear. When the investigators considered intakes from both food and dietary supplements, they found that 20%–25% of older adults still had inadequate zinc intakes . In its structural role, zinc coordinates with certain protein domains, facilitating protein folding and producing structures such as 'zinc fingers'. FDA required manufacturers to use these new labels starting in January 2020, but companies with annual sales of less than $10 million may continue to use the old labels that list a zinc DV of 15 mg until January 2021 [14,16]. Zinc - Zinc is an essential element involved in a myriad of enzyme systems including wound healing, immune function, and fetal development. In more severe cases, zinc deficiency causes hair loss, diarrhea, delayed sexual maturation, impotence, hypogonadism in males, and eye and skin lesions [2,8,27,28]. [, Dixon LB, Winkleby MA, Radimer KL. Many of these symptoms are non-specific and often associated with other health conditions; therefore, a medical examination is necessary to ascertain whether a zinc deficiency is present. Reductions in a copper-containing enzyme, a marker of copper status, have been reported with even moderately high zinc intakes of approximately 60 mg/day for up to 10 weeks . For this reason, dietary supplement formulations containing high levels of zinc, such as the one used in the AREDS study , sometimes contain copper. 1.1: Biological Significance of Iron, Zinc, Copper, Molybdenum, Cobalt, Chromium, Vanadium, and Nickel, https://chem.libretexts.org/@app/auth/2/login?returnto=https%3A%2F%2Fchem.libretexts.org%2FBookshelves%2FInorganic_Chemistry%2FBook3A_Bioinorganic_Chemistry_(Bertini_et_al. [, American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada. about your interest in, questions about, or use of dietary supplements and what may be best for your overall health. Acta Med Scand 1980;208:209-12. In addition, they might benefit from using certain food preparation techniques that reduce the binding of zinc by phytates and increase its bioavailability. [, Fabris N, Mocchegiani E. Zinc, human diseases and aging. liver both during zinc restriction and zinc excess. One study demonstrated that after restricting the zinc intake of the participants for 5 months, supplementing with zinc had a significant impact on testosterone levels in the majority of participants. Zinc is a nutrient that plays many vital roles in your body. Pregnant women, particularly those starting their pregnancy with marginal zinc status, are at increased risk of becoming zinc insufficient due, in part, to high fetal requirements for zinc . Brass supplemented bronze during the Roman Empire in the manufacture of coins, weapons, and art. Plasma zinc status, growth, and maturation in children with sickle cell disease. In 77 participants with natural colds, a combination of zinc gluconate nasal spray and zinc orotate lozenges (37 mg zinc every 2–3 wakeful hours) was also found to have no effect on the number of asymptomatic patients after 7 days of treatment . Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL): Maximum daily intake unlikely to cause adverse health effects. To achieve this, the following issues are addressed: (1) the biochemistry and biology of zinc in the context of their relevance to zinc in human nutrition and to our understanding of the complexity and practical importance of human zinc deficiency; (2) the history of … [, Alexander TH, Davidson TM. Data from NHANES III indicate that adults aged 60 years or older from food-insufficient families had lower intakes of zinc and several other nutrients and were more likely to have zinc intakes below 50% of the RDA on a given day than those from food-sufficient families . A Cochrane review concluded that the evidence supporting the use of antioxidant vitamins and zinc for AMD comes primarily from the AREDS study . Clinical Significance. Clin Infect Dis 2000;31:1202-8. Patients with chronic leg ulcers have abnormal zinc metabolism and low serum zinc levels , and clinicians frequently treat skin ulcers with zinc supplements . Significance of Zinc in a human body APRIL 20, 2016. Acta Paediatr Scand Suppl 1985;319:158-63. The peptidases, kinases, and phosphorylases are most sensitive to zinc depletion. Biol Trace Elem Res 1995;49:211-25. Zinc deficiency in men is linked to significantly reduced testosterone levels which can have a very damaging effect on both fertility and sex drive. Missed the LibreFest? Long-term intakes above the UL increase the risk of adverse health effects . 2008 Aug 26;71(9):639-43. Whether any types of biological reactions are unique to copper proteins is not clear. ZNS : Zinc is an essential element; it is a critical cofactor for carbonic anhydrase, alkaline phosphatase, RNA and DNA polymerases, alcohol dehydrogenase, and many other physiologically important proteins. Acute diarrhea is associated with high rates of mortality among children in developing countries . Zinc is involved in numerous aspects of cellular metabolism. Although the redox properties of the metals are important in many of the reactions, in others the metal appears to contribute to the structure of the active state, e.g., zinc in the Cu-Zn dismutases and some of the iron in the photosynthetic reaction center. J Nutr 2007;137:1101-5. Hambidge KM, Mild zinc deficiency in human subjects. Legal. Zinc is an essential trace element that activates several hundred enzymatic reactions. Includes a variety of protein foods, including seafood, lean meats and poultry, eggs, legumes (beans and peas), nuts, seeds, and soy products. In September of 2007, Caruso and colleagues published a structured review of the effects of zinc lozenges, nasal sprays, and nasal gels on the common cold . [, Nations SP, Boyer PJ, Love LA, Burritt MF, Butz JA, Wolfe GI, Hynan LS, Reisch J, Trivedi JR. Denture cream: an unusual source of excess zinc, leading to hypocupremia and neurologic disease. Pancreas 1994;9:270-4. Dig Dis Sci. Zinc in the fetus and newborn. Brown KH, Allen LH, Peerson J. Zinc supplementation and children's growth: a meta-analysis of intervention trials. They recommend use of an AREDS formulation providing 80 mg zinc [79,80]. [, Hulisz D. Efficacy of zinc against common cold viruses: an overview. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;75:300-7. [, Ploysangam A, Falciglia GA, Brehm BJ. Wound Repair Regen 2007;15:2-16. Nickel is a component of a hydrolase (urease), of hydrogenase, of CO dehydrogenase, and of S-methyl CoM reductase, which catalyzes the terminal step in methane production by methanogenic bacteria. In a population-based cohort study in the Netherlands, high dietary intake of zinc as well as beta carotene, vitamin C, and vitamin E was associated with reduced risk of AMD in elderly subjects . Much of the zinc in animals and plants has no known function, but it may be maintaining the structures of proteins that activate and deactivate genes.11. Zinc deficiency: changes in cytokine production and T-cell subpopulations in patients with head and neck cancer and in noncancer subjects. J Nutr 2003;133:1485S-9S. [, Caulfield LE, Zavaleta N, Shankar AH, Merialdi M. Potential contribution of maternal zinc supplementation during pregnancy to maternal and child survival. Leonard MB, Zemel BS, Kawchak DA, Ohene-Frempong K, Stallings VA. The manufacturer recalled these products from the marketplace. For more information contact us at email@example.com or check out our status page at https://status.libretexts.org. Interagency Board for Nutrition Monitoring and Related Research. [, Newsome DA, Swartz M, Leone NC, Elston RC, Miller E. Oral zinc in macular degeneration. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1994;18:895-901. J Nutr 2002;132:3422-7. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003) 2004;44:594-603. Second, the biological roles of each remain largely unknown.18 Finally, each has served as a probe to characterize the sites of other metals, such as iron and zinc. In addition to standard tablets and capsules, some zinc-containing cold lozenges are labeled as dietary supplements. Zinc is the 24th most abundant element in Earth's crust and has five stable isotopes. [, Lansdown AB, Mirastschijski U, Stubbs N, Scanlon E, Agren MS. Zinc in wound healing: theoretical, experimental, and clinical aspects. However, the authors of a systematic review and meta-analysis published in 2007 concluded that zinc is not effective for the primary prevention of early AMD , although zinc might reduce the risk of progression to advanced AMD. BMJ 2007;335:755. Supports progression and the healthy Zinc is a naturally occurring mineral. Such data indicate the importance of mechanisms for accumulation, storage, and transport of transition metals and zinc in living organisms. The World Health Organization and UNICEF now recommend short-term zinc supplementation (20 mg of zinc per day, or 10 mg for infants under 6 months, for 10–14 days) to treat acute childhood diarrhea . The elemental zinc content appears in the Supplement Facts panel on the supplement container. Specific environments for nickel are also indicated for nucleic acids (or nucleic acid-binding proteins), since nickel activates the gene for hydrogenase.15, Manganese plays a critical role in oxygen evolution catalyzed by the proteins of the photosynthetic reaction center. Neurology. It additionally: Supports your immune system that is healthy Crucial for wound healing. Effect of weekly zinc supplements on incidence of pneumonia and diarrhoea in children younger than 2 years in an urban, low-income population in Bangladesh: randomised controlled trial. Zinc is also important to wound healing and your sense of taste and smell.With a varied diet, your body usually gets enough zinc. Individuals with low zinc levels have shown reduced lymphocyte proliferation response to mitogens and other adverse alterations in immunity that can be corrected by zinc supplementation [52,54]. Urinary zinc excretion during treatment with different diuretics. Vanadium and chromium have several features in common, from a bioinorganic viewpoint.18a First, both metals are present in only small amounts in most organisms. It is called an "essential trace element" because very small amounts of zinc are necessary for human health. Effects of zinc deficiency on Th1 and Th2 cytokine shifts. Vitamin-B12 deficiency causes the severe disease of pernicious anemia in humans, which indicates the critical role of cobalt. [, Eby GA, Halcomb WW. Anosmia after intranasal zinc gluconate use. But little is known about the structure of the factor or of any other specific chromium complexes from plants, animals, or bacteria. Clinicians consider risk factors (such as inadequate caloric intake, alcoholism, and digestive diseases) and symptoms of zinc deficiency (such as impaired growth in infants and children) when determining the need for zinc supplementation . reversible binding of dioxygen, e.g., hemocyanin (Cu), hemerythrin (Fe), and hemoglobin (Fe); activation of dioxygen, e.g., dopamine hydroxylase (Cu) (important in the synthesis of the hormone epinephrine), tyrosinases (Cu), and catechol dioxygenases (Fe); electron transfer, e.g., plastocyanins (Cu), ferredoxins, and c-type cytochromes (Fe); dismutation of superoxide by Cu or Fe as the redox-active metal (superoxide dismutases). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1995. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;68 (2 Suppl):414S-7S. [, Age-Related Eye Disease Study Research Group. Pediatrics 2008;121:326-36. A daily intake of zinc is required to maintain a steady state because the body has no specialized zinc storage system . [. Researchers have hypothesized that zinc could reduce the severity and duration of cold symptoms by directly inhibiting rhinovirus binding and replication in the nasal mucosa and suppressing inflammation [68,69]. The Biological Significance of Zinc This section is compiled by Frank M. Painter, D.C. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1996;37:1225-35. Chronic diarrhea also leads to excessive loss of zinc . Taking the antibiotic at least 2 hours before or 4–6 hours after taking a zinc supplement minimizes this interaction . For example, approximately 23% of zinc sulfate consists of elemental zinc; thus, 220 mg of zinc sulfate contains 50 mg of elemental zinc. Taking iron supplements between meals helps decrease its effect on zinc absorption . Zinc in Human Biology. Zinc is important for growth and for the development and health of body tissues. Therapeutic effects of oral zinc in acute and persistent diarrhea in children in developing countries: pooled analysis of randomized controlled trials. The body requires zinc to develop and activate T-lymphocytes [2,53]. In: Shils ME, Shike M, Ross AC, Caballero B, Cousins, RJ, eds. Proc Assoc Am Physicians 1997;109:68-77. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;78 (3 Suppl):633S-9S. We encourage you to talk to your healthcare providers (doctor, registered dietitian, pharmacist, etc.) Zinc intakes might also be low in older adults from the 2%–4% of U.S. households that are food insufficient (sometimes or often not having enough food) . Zinc deficiency tests can also be done with a urine sample and hair analysis. FDA does not require food labels to list zinc content unless zinc has been added to the food. However, treatment with zinc acetate lozenges (providing 5 or 11.5 mg zinc) had no effect on either cold duration or severity. Effect of zinc sulphate on the absorption of tetracycline and doxycycline in man. A wide variety of foods contain zinc (Table 2) . The authors of a systematic review concluded that zinc sulfate might be effective for treating leg ulcers in some patients who have low serum zinc levels [61,62]. [, Prasad AS, Beck FW, Grabowski SM, Kaplan J, Mathog RH. Clinical and laboratory assessment of zinc deficiency in Dutch children. Zinc supplementation significantly reduced visual acuity loss in one of the studies  but had no effect in the other . Zinc is a mineral that your body uses for fighting off infections and producing cells. For these reasons, the RDA for zinc is higher for pregnant and lactating women than for other women (see Table 1) . Serum zinc and pneumonia in nursing home elderly. Arch Ophthalmol 1988;106:192-8. After an average follow-up period of 6.3 years, supplementation with antioxidants plus zinc (but not antioxidants alone) significantly reduced the risk of developing advanced AMD and reduced visual acuity loss. In: Mills CF, ed. Zinc is a naturally occurring mineral. Compared with placebo, the zinc lozenges significantly reduced the duration of cold symptoms (cough, nasal discharge, and muscle aches) . In addition, vegetarians typically eat high levels of legumes and whole grains, which contain phytates that bind zinc and inhibit its absorption [34,41]. Authors: Josko Osredkar. Met Ions Biol Syst 2004;41:103-37. The Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS), a large, randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial (n = 3,597), evaluated the effect of high doses of selected antioxidants (500 mg vitamin C, 400 IU vitamin E, and 15 mg beta-carotene) with or without zinc (80 mg as zinc oxide) on the development of advanced AMD in older individuals with varying degrees of AMD . Nutr Rev 1998;56:27-8. Nat Clin Pract Neurol. Copper and iron proteins participate in many of the same biological reactions: The two metal ions also function in concert in proteins such as cytochrome oxidase, which catalyzes the transfer of four electrons to dioxygen to form water during respiration. [, Brooks WA, Santosham M, Naheed A, Goswami D, Wahed MA, Diener-West M, et al. Sandstrom B. Bioavailability of zinc. Am J Rhinol 2004;18:137-41. Such toxicity has been reported in individuals who used 2 or more standard 2.4 oz tubes of denture cream per week [20,21]. [. Despite the small number of characterized Ni-proteins, it is clear that many different environments exist, from apparently direct coordination to protein ligands (urease) to the tetrapyrrole F430 in methylreductase and the multiple metal sites of Ni and Fe-S in a hydrogenase from the bacterium Desulfovibrio gigas. Zinc Sulfate. Zinc for the common cold. [, Meydani SN, Barnett JB, Dallal GE, Fine BC, Jacques PF, Leka LS, et al. Vanadium is required for normal health, and could act in vivo either as a metal cation or as a phosphate analogue, depending on the oxidation state, V(lV) or V(V), respectively. Effect of treatment with zinc gluconate or zinc acetate on experimental and natural colds. [, Evans JR. Antioxidant vitamin and mineral supplements for slowing the progression of age-related macular degeneration. The superoxide dismutase of bacteria and mitochondria, as well as pyruvate carboxylase in mammals, are also manganese proteins.16,17 How the multiple manganese atoms of the photosynthetic reaction center participate in the removal of four electrons and protons from water is the subject of intense investigation by spectroscopists, synthetic inorganic chemists, and molecular biologists.17. [Article in German] Seeling W, Ahnefeld FW, Dick W, Fodor L. Zinc takes part in the catalytic function of many metalloenzymes. Similar findings were reported in a meta-analysis published in 2008 and a 2007 review of zinc supplementation for preventing and treating diarrhea [66,67]. Iron fortification programs have been credited with improving the iron status of millions of women, infants, and children. Dietary intake of antioxidants and risk of age-related macular degeneration. Ask ODS Some of the activities that zinc are involved in: J Trop Pediatr 1997;43:192-8. [, Navarro S, Valderrama R, To-Figueras J, Gimenez A, Lopez JM, Campo E, et al. Zinc gluconate may also be used for other purposes not listed in this medication guide. In addition, the variety and amount of food consumed by many alcoholics is limited, leading to inadequate zinc intake [2,49,50]. [, Caruso TJ, Prober CG, Gwaltney JM Jr. Food Assistance and Nutrition Report Number 36, 2003. In June 2009, the FDA warned consumers to stop using three zinc-containing intranasal products because they might cause anosmia . Studies show that poor, malnourished children in India, Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia experience shorter courses of infectious diarrhea after taking zinc supplements . J Infect Dis 2000;182 (Suppl):S62-8. Arch Dermatol 1998;134:1556-60. Water-soluble and non-chelated, this is an inorganic form of zinc, and the results are … Severe zinc deficiency depresses immune function , and even mild to moderate degrees of zinc deficiency can impair macrophage and neutrophil functions, natural killer cell activity, and complement activity . [, Prasad AS. Zinc can reduce the absorption and action of penicillamine, a drug used to treat rheumatoid arthritis . [, Jafek BW, Linschoten MR, Murrow BW. Individuals who have or are developing AMD should talk to their healthcare provider about taking a zinc-containing AREDS supplement. The zinc present in the pancreas may aid in the storage of insulin. To minimize this interaction, individuals should take zinc supplements at least 2 hours before or after taking penicillamine . [, Maret W, Sandstead HH. The bioavailability of zinc from vegetarian diets is lower than from non-vegetarian diets because vegetarians do not eat meat, which is high in bioavailable zinc and may enhance zinc absorption. The number of redox centers in some Mo-proteins exceeds the number of electrons transferred; reasons for this are unknown currently. Clinical management of acute diarrhoea. [, Prasad AS, Beck FW, Bao B, Snell D, Fitzgerald JT. In another clinical trial involving 273 participants with experimentally induced colds, zinc gluconate lozenges (providing 13.3 mg zinc) significantly reduced the duration of illness compared with placebo but had no effect on symptom severity . J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 1998;36:99-101. Two other small clinical trials evaluated the effects of supplementation with 200 mg zinc sulfate (providing 45 mg zinc) for 2 years in subjects with drusen or macular degeneration. In addition, results from a pooled analysis of randomized controlled trials of zinc supplementation in developing countries suggest that zinc helps reduce the duration and severity of diarrhea in zinc-deficient or otherwise malnourished children . Although studies examining the effect of zinc treatment on cold symptoms have had somewhat conflicting results, overall zinc appears to be beneficial under certain circumstances. [, Ribar DS, Hamrick KS. http://www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/ucm166931.htm, Advance data from vital and health statistics no 258, http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/fanrr36/fanrr36.pdf, http://www.unicef.org/nutrition/files/ENAcute_Diarrhoea_reprint.pdf, Oysters, cooked, breaded and fried, 3 ounces, Baked beans, canned, plain or vegetarian, ½ cup, Breakfast cereal, fortified with 25% of the DV for zinc, 1 serving, Oatmeal, instant, plain, prepared with water, 1 packet, Chicken breast, roasted, skin removed, ½ breast. Estimated Average Requirement (EAR): Average daily level of intake estimated to meet the requirements of 50% of healthy individuals; usually used to assess the nutrient intakes of groups of people and to plan nutritionally adequate diets for them; can also be used to assess the nutrient intakes of individuals. Additional biological reactions are unique to nonferrous transition metals. Clinical effects of zinc deficiency can be present in the absence of abnormal laboratory indices . J Infect Dis 2008 ;197:795-802. Thiazide diuretics such as chlorthalidone (Hygroton®) and hydrochlorothiazide (Esidrix® and HydroDIURIL®) increase urinary zinc excretion by as much as 60% .
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