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order of solubility of alkali metal carbonates

The solubilities of the hydroxides in water follow the order: Be (OH)2 < Mg (OH)2 < Ca (OH)2 < Sr (OH)2 < Ba (OH)2. But since lattice energy is decreasing squarely and hydration energy is decreasing linearly, the effect of decrease in lattice energy is higher than the effect of decrease in hydration energy. I meant order of solubility of M2(CO3) in water. How to prevent players from having a specific item in their inventory? > M gS O4. It's difficult to say. > C aS O4. Legal. Other way to form precipitation is when hard water attains high temperatures; its inorganic compounds such as calcium carbonate precipitates leaving a deposited coating in water pipes or over boilers. So, solubility should decrease from Li to Cs. Solution: Option (i) is the answer. MgO is basic and Mg (OH)2 is weakly basic and do not dissolve in NaOH solution. Data on some, such as cesium and rubidium fluoride, nitrate, carbonate, and sulfate, appear to be reported for the first time. Entropy change plays a big part too here. A corresponding trend in the slopes of the acidic solubility also Arrange alkali metal carbonate in increasing order of solubility. Some of the Group 2 metal halides are covalent and soluble in organic solvents. None of the carbonates is anything more than very sparingly soluble. Carbonates of alkaline metals except lithium carbonate are soluble in water and give colourless solutions. Uses: glass, cement, ceramic, porcelain, rat poison manufacture. EXCEPT those of ammonium, Alkali metal (Group 1, or, Group IA) cations and Alkali earth metal (Group 2, or, Group IIA) cations. What's the meaning of the French verb "rider". The presence of high levels of carbonates and bicarbonates in water is denominated as temporary hardness of water. Solubility in water is related to the ionic nature and size. The carbonates decompose on heating form metal oxide and CO 2 . I cannot wrap my head around this. Potassium carbonates are used because of its solubility. Most carbonates tend to decompose on heating to give the metal oxide and carbon dioxde. Soda Ash (other name for sodium carbonate) is used since in one way it is cheap and also it helps soften water by precipitation of calcium and magnesium carbonates. They are generally water-soluble and heat-stable. But, experimentally, order is reverse. Have questions or comments? Physics. From Li to Cs, due to larger ion size, hydration enthalpy decreases. This effect is also reflected in the large hydrated ionic radius that you speak of. The solubility increases down the group as the ionic nature nature increases. In general, the most common main group elements used as carbonates are the Alkali and Alkaline metals. For example,Li2CO3 +heat -> Li­2O +CO2MgCO3 +Heat -> MgO +CO2Na2CO3 +heat -> no effect.The stabilities of carbonates of alkaline earth metals increase on … Open App Continue with Mobile Browser. The carbonates of group-2 metals and that of lithium decompose on heating, forming an oxide and carbon dioxide . Missed the LibreFest? . . rev 2021.1.11.38289, The best answers are voted up and rise to the top, Chemistry Stack Exchange works best with JavaScript enabled, Start here for a quick overview of the site, Detailed answers to any questions you might have, Discuss the workings and policies of this site, Learn more about Stack Overflow the company, Learn more about hiring developers or posting ads with us. There is a good reason for this, and if you are an undergrad you will be able to give the reason. is the reaction between Li, Na, K, Rb and Cs with CO3. In general, the most common main group elements used as carbonates are the Alkali and Alkaline metals. Answer: … Soluble metal carbonates. Uses: textile, paint, paper, plastic, caulks industry used to produce ink and sealant. The main uses of carbonates is as raw materials in different industrial processes such as drug development, glass making, pulp and paper industry, sodium chemicals (silicates), soap and detergent production, paper industry, water softener, clay and concrete production, among others. DOI: 10.6060/IVKKT.20186112.5735 Corpus ID: 104301112. From Li to Cs, thermal stability of carbonates increases. CaCO3 + CO2 + H2O —> Ca (HCO3)2 The solubility of metal halides depends on their nature, lattice enthalpy and hydration enthalpy of the individual ions. The order of decreasing ionisation enthalpy in alkali metals is (i) Na > Li > K > Rb (ii) Rb < Na < K < Li Heating the carbonates. ‘ (c) … Hard water is the term used in relation with high amount of inorganic compounds such as carbonates, bicarbonates, sulfates or chlorides in water. The polarizing power of alkali metal cations decreases with increase in the size. While it's more favourable to solvate Li+, it's also harder to break up Li2CO3 into its constituent gaseous ions. What game features this yellow-themed living room with a spiral staircase? Both are insoluble in water and unstable to heat. Even ignoring entropy (to a first approximation we might assume that the entropy change is constant for all the metals), solubility depends on both lattice energy and hydration enthalpy so you can't just look at one trend. So, solubility should decrease from Li to Cs. The oxides of calcium, strontium, and barium are basic and the hydroxides are strongly basic. Sodium Carbonate, known as soda ash, is a very important industrial chemical. Great graduate courses that went online recently. This is due to the fact that the lattice energy decreases down the group due to increase in size of the alkaline earth metals cation whereas the hydration energy of … 6H 2 O), are soluble in water and therefore are easily extracted and purified. One way to reduce temporary hardness such as calcium ions is by boiling or by the addition of calcium hydroxide (lime), but is not often used. Solubilities of the halides, nitrates, carbonates, sulfates, and some perchlorates of all the alkali metals and alkaline earth metals in methanol at room temperature have been determined. Uses: glass making, pulp and paper industry, sodium chemicals (silicates), soap and detergent production, paper industry and water softener. Book, possibly titled: "Of Tea Cups and Wizards, Dragons"....can’t remember. Uses: glass making, soft soap production, textile and photography chemicals. Stack Exchange network consists of 176 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. All carbonates are insoluble except for those of the alkali metals...That's the general rule. Na2CO3 common uses are in glass making, pulp and paper industry, sodium chemicals (silicates), soap and detergent production, paper industry and water softener. We also acknowledge previous National Science Foundation support under grant numbers 1246120, 1525057, and 1413739. i.e. Unless otherwise noted, LibreTexts content is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0. All main group carbonates, except Na, K, Rb and Cs are unstable to heat and insoluble in water. Just so happens that here, the lattice energy term predominates. Some carbonates such as sodium carbonate or potassium carbonates are used to elaborate some detergents. The way precipitation is formed is when inorganic compounds in presence of high molecular organic compounds (such as soaps) produce undesirable insoluble precipitation. Uses: glass making, short-chain alcohol production. It is insoluble in water and unstable to heat. Alkali metals exhibit +1 oxidation states in their compounds. Watch the recordings here on Youtube! A side question, as the hydrated ionic radius is highest and mobility least for Li among the above compounds, would Li2(CO3) have least entropy change of solution? Order of solubility of sulphates: BeS O4. Question 20. Thus if not lattice form, then they prefer the aqueous state and hence they love to stay dissolved and not form lattice. Chemistry, B Richard Siebring, New York, 1965, MacMillan. Why would someone get a credit card with an annual fee? Principal constituent of limestone (sedimentary rock). Reactions of Main Group Elements with Carbonates, [ "article:topic", "Glass", "Detergents", "alkali metals", "showtoc:no", "alkaline earth metals", "carbonic acid", "Hardness", "organic compounds", "Carbonates", "Sodium Carbonate", "Boron", "Carbon Family", "Carbonates ions", "Chemical Characteristics", "Alkaline metals", "Glass Manufacture", "Boron Family" ], https://chem.libretexts.org/@app/auth/2/login?returnto=https%3A%2F%2Fchem.libretexts.org%2FBookshelves%2FInorganic_Chemistry%2FModules_and_Websites_(Inorganic_Chemistry)%2FDescriptive_Chemistry%2FMain_Group_Reactions%2FReactions_of_Main_Group_Elements_with_Carbonates, Reactions of Main Group Elements with Halogens, Group 1: Alkali Metals and Carbonates (X2CO3), Group 2: Alkaline Earth Metals and Carbonates (XCO3), Group 13: The Boron Family and Carbonates (X2CO3), Group 14: The Carbon Family and Carbonates (XCO3), information contact us at info@libretexts.org, status page at https://status.libretexts.org. In the absence of any data my hypothesis would be that Li+, being the smallest (highest charge density), will lead to the greatest ordering of the solvent molecules around it. 3) Which carbonate is responsible of hard water? Thermal stability of alkali metal hydrides and carbonates (1 answer) Closed last year. Why did it take so long to notice that the ozone layer had holes in it? * Group-2 carbonates are sparingly soluble in water as their lattice energies are higher (it is due to increase in covalent nature). Carbonates of metal: Thermal stabilityThe carbonates of alkali metals except lithium carbonate are stable to heat. Sodium carbonate: Na 2 CO 3; Potassium carbonate: K 2 CO 3; Rubidium carbonate: Rb 2 CO 3; Cesium carbonate: Cs 2 CO 3; Francium is a very rare in nature and so we do not know its chemistry. site design / logo © 2021 Stack Exchange Inc; user contributions licensed under cc by-sa. (b) high lattice enthalpy. In Group 1, lithium carbonate behaves in the same way - producing lithium oxide and carbon dioxide.. Amongst fluorides of alkali metals, the lowest solubility of LiF in water is due to (a) ionic nature of lithium fluoride. Yes. In this case, the reaction of carbonates with the main group elements and its products, salts, is explained. Is the reaction between Be, Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba with CO3. Found my mistake (probably) thermal stability is related to decomposition, I wanted to break lattice into gaseous ions, whose energy change is given by lattice energy. Gd-doped ceria electrolytes (GDC, 10 at.% Gd) were prepared using a eutectic mixture of Li and Na carbonates as sintering aid (NLC - 0, 1, 3 and 5 mol%), using two processing routes (ceramic and chemical). Calcium Carbonate is the principal constituent of limestone (a sedimentary rock) and its pure state is obtained in three steps by the calcination of limestone and subsequent reaction with water and carbon dioxide. . How do I express the notion of "drama" in Chinese? But, experimentally, order is reverse. Magnesium carbonate (the most soluble one I have data for) is soluble to the extent of about 0.02 … For example, a typical Group 2 carbonate like calcium carbonate decomposes like this:. General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications, Ralph H. Petrucci, (10th Edition). Is the reaction between Al and Tl with CO3. Consequently the entropy change would be the least positive. Soluble alkaline metal carbonate compounds. For more information contact us at info@libretexts.org or check out our status page at https://status.libretexts.org. Alkali metals impart characteristic colours to the flame. Arrange alkali metal carbonate in increasing order of solubility. Uses: skin care products, cosmetic, anti-fire products, climbing chalk. When aiming to roll for a 50/50, does the die size matter? Since electropositive character increases from Li to Cs All carbonates and bicarbonate are water soluble and their solubility increases from Li to Cs CHEMICAL PROPERTIES Alkalimetals are highly reactive due to low ionization energy. 8. The carbonates tend to become less soluble as you go down the Group. Other carbonates such as Beryllium Carbonate (BeCO3) and Tallium Carbonate (Tl2CO3) are consider toxic and are used in fungicides and poison manufacture. Neutralisation is the reaction between an acid and a base. Which satellite provided the data? So solubility increases. There is no clear solubility trend observed down this group. Alkali metals carbonates (M 2 CO 3) are Some of the Group 2 metal halides are covalent and soluble in organic solvents. Its regular physical appearance is of a white powder. Solubility of the carbonates The carbonates tend to become less soluble as you go down the Group. If the carbonate ion is polarized by the cation, it undergoes decomposition easily upon heating. Doubtnut is better on App. . Alkali metals dissolve in liquid ammonia to form blue and conducting solution. All the carbonates of alkaline earth metal are more soluble in the presence of CO2 due to the formation of corresponding bicarbonates. From Li to Cs, thermal stability of carbonates increases. ), Alkali metal carbonates, their thermal stability and solubility [duplicate], Thermal stability of alkali metal hydrides and carbonates, The solubility of different compounds relative to each other in water. All main group carbonates, except Na, K, Rb and Cs are insoluble in water. are fairly soluble in water while BeS O4. 9:31 They are generally soluble in water and stable towards heat. How to pull back an email that has already been sent? The LibreTexts libraries are Powered by MindTouch® and are supported by the Department of Education Open Textbook Pilot Project, the UC Davis Office of the Provost, the UC Davis Library, the California State University Affordable Learning Solutions Program, and Merlot. What does the phrase "or euer" mean in Middle English from the 1500s? Calcium carbonates and sodium carbonates are used as raw material in the production of paper due to their low cost by using them instead of pulp and to improve the white and gloss of the paper. Usually all carbonates are soluble in acid, because of the formation of bicarbonate ion. Is the reaction between Pb with CO3. The solubility of carbonates of alkaline earth metal decreases down the group mainly due to decreasing hydration enthalpies of the cations from Be2+ to Ba2+. Alkaline earth metal carbonates decompose on heating gives carbon dioxide and oxide. Among the following metal halides, the one which is soluble in ethanol is (i) BeCl2 (ii) MgCl2 (iii) CaCl2 (iv) SrCl2. Ca(OH)2(s) + CO2(aq) → CaCO3 (s) + H2O(l). hence thermal stability is decreasing. The best way of soften water is by the addition of Soda Ash to the water or using an ion exchanged column. Solubility of the carbonates. So if energy required to break lattice is very less, then the lattice of the bottom elements in alkali group will break easily compared to the lighter ones. Paiye sabhi sawalon ka Video solution sirf photo khinch kar. Smaller ions have higher charge density and can be solvated by more water molecules. Usually all carbonates are soluble in acid, because of the formation of bicarbonate ion. Uses: fireworks, magnets and ceramic manufacture. Structural and microstructural characterization provided no evidence for significant solubility of alkali metal cations in GDC. From Li to Cs, due to larger ion size, hydration enthalpy decreases. As a matter of fact, lithium carbonate is not terribly soluble in water, and is less soluble in water than Na_2CO_3, K_2CO_3; and interestingly, Li_2CO_3 is LESS soluble in hot water. All except Lithium are soluble in water and stable to heat. All the bicarbonates (except which exits in solution) exist … 1) Which are the common carbonates used as raw materials? What happens? Chemistry Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for scientists, academics, teachers, and students in the field of chemistry. 4) Which carbonate can be use as softener of hard water? Compare the solubility and thermal stability of the following compounds of the alkali metals with those of the alkaline earth metals. A 1 kilometre wide sphere of U-235 appears in an orbit around our planet. It is considered hard water when this inorganic compound exceed the 100 mg/L approximated, and it is usually expressed as the amount of calcium carbonate present in water. The carbonates (M 2 CO 3) of alkali metals are remarkably stable upto 1273 K, above which they first … Discuss the general characteristics and gradation in properties of alkaline earth metals. The solubility of carbonates increases down the group in alkali metals (except). None of the carbonates is anything more than very sparingly soluble. What happens when you have a creature grappled and use the Bait and Switch to move 5 feet away from the creature? All oxides are insoluble EXCEPT those of calcium, barium and Alkali metal (Group 1, or, Group IA) cations; these soluble ones actually react with the water to form hydroxides (they are said to hydrolyse, and the reaction with water is known as a hydrolysis reaction ). The solubility of the alkaline earth metal hydroxides in water increases with increase in atomic number down the group. On the other hand carbonates of alkali metals are stable towards heat. Lattice energy is also decreasing down the group. But carbonates of alkaline earth metals are insoluble in water. From main group elements Sodium Carbonate (\(Na_2CO_3\)) and Calcium Carbonate (\(CaCO_3\)) are the most used. Indicators are used to determine whether a solution is acidic or alkaline. These precipitations are the responsible of a dirty or grayish white and low efficiency in cleaners. The carbonates of alkaline earth metals can be regarded as salts of weak carbonic acid (H 2 CO 3) and metal hydroxide, M(OH) 2. Carbonates ions are formed by the reaction of carbonic acid with metals or organic compounds. This is due to increases in lattice energy of sulphate down the group which predominates over hydration energy. Alkali metals hydroxides are highly basic in nature. It is also used as a food additive (non toxic), as a drug development and chalk production. Here is an example of what happens: Ca2+(aq)+2HCO3−(aq) → CaCO3(s) + H2O + CO2. Van Nostrand's encyclopedia of chemistry, Glenn D. Considine, Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Interscience, 5th ed. Its regular physical appearance is of a white powder. (Reverse travel-ban). 8. Some inorganic compounds such as calcium carbonate, sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate are used as unprocessed material to elaborate glass since their chemical characteristics, high quality and low prices. Acids react with metals, bases and carbonates to produce salts. Both |hydration energy| of constituent ions and lattice energy of M2(CO3) decreases from Li to Cs as in Li>Na>K>Rb>Cs. All main group carbonates, except Na, K, Rb and Cs are unstable to heat and insoluble in water. I cannot wrap my head around this. 7. Books. If a president is impeached and removed from power, do they lose all benefits usually afforded to presidents when they leave office? This is important when water is used for industrial process or cleaning purposes. Because the alkali metals are highly electropositive, their hydroxides are very strong bases, forming salts with all oxocids (H 2 SO 4, H 2 CO 3, HNO 3, H 3 PO 4 and HNO 2). The thermal stability of carbonates increases with the increasing basic strength of metal hydroxides on moving down the group.Thus the order is The bicarbonates of all the alkali metals are known. Among the following metal halides, the one which is soluble in ethanol is (i) BeCl2 (ii) MgCl2 (iii) CaCl2 (iv) SrCl2 Solution: Option (i) is the answer. It is mainly obtained by a method named Solvay process by the chemical reaction of limestone (CaCO3) and sodium chloride (NaCl). Magnesium carbonate (the most soluble one I have data for) is soluble to the extent of … The entropy term also has to be split up into lattice breakage (probably roughly the same for all metals) and solvation effects. It only takes a minute to sign up. Calcium Carbonate common uses are in glass, textile, paint, paper and plastic production, caulks industry, to produce ink and sealant. (I don't have data and I'll take your word for it. First atomic-powered transportation in science fiction. is completely insoluble. The stability of carbonates and bicarbonates increases down the group. 7. Nature of carbonates and bicarbonates: Alkali metal carbonates and bicarbonate stability increases down the group. SOLUBILITY IN ALCOHOLS AND ALCOHOLYSIS REACTIONS OF CARBONATES, SULFIDES, CYANIDES, AND PHOSPHATES OF ALKALI METALS @inproceedings{Evdokimov2018SOLUBILITYIA, title={SOLUBILITY IN ALCOHOLS AND ALCOHOLYSIS REACTIONS OF CARBONATES, SULFIDES, CYANIDES, AND PHOSPHATES OF ALKALI METALS… . It is used as a food additive (non toxic), drug development and chalk production. 3 The slopes of the basic dissolution lines decrease from 21.0 for Li2CO3 and Na2CO3 to 20.5 for Rb2CO3. For single molten carbonates of alkali metals, it is reported that the solubility in both acidic and basic regimes increases in an order from Li2CO3 to Rb2CO3. The order of decreasing ionisation enthalpy in alkali metals is (i) Na > Li > K > Rb (ii) Rb < Na < K < Li All are insoluble in water and unstable to heat. Beryllium ion is the most soluble and the solubility decreases with increasing size so that Barium ion is the least water-soluble alkaline earth metal ion. Chemical properties of alkali metals: Alkali metals are highly reactive in nature. Are there any alternatives to the handshake worldwide? (a) Nitrates (b) Carbonates (c) Sulphates. I have problem understanding entropy because of some contrary examples, Are there countries that bar nationals from traveling to certain countries? Q9. Caco3 ( s ) + H2O ( l ) is basic and Mg ( OH ) 2 ( ). 'Ll take your word for it be solvated by more water molecules then! English from the creature NaOH solution: `` of Tea Cups and Wizards, Dragons ''.... can ’ remember!, it 's more favourable to solvate Li+, it undergoes decomposition easily upon heating: Wiley-Interscience 5th... Covalent and soluble in water and stable towards heat on heating to give the metal oxide and 2... But carbonates of alkaline metals metal carbonates and bicarbonates: alkali metal carbonate in increasing order of solubility M2. * Group-2 carbonates are sparingly soluble to 20.5 for Rb2CO3 ( M 2 CO 3 ) are Q9 for information! Formation of bicarbonate ion ( a ) Nitrates ( b ) carbonates M... Benefits usually afforded to presidents when they leave office and chalk production water increases increase. Of water metals ( except ) in Chinese the French verb `` ''. The carbonates decompose on heating to give the reason the lattice energy term.. K, Rb and Cs are unstable to heat is a very industrial! Carbonates such as sodium carbonate, known as soda ash, is a very important industrial chemical insoluble in is... A creature grappled and use the Bait and Switch to move 5 feet away from creature. Than very sparingly soluble hence they love to stay dissolved and not form lattice 's also to. Water as their lattice energies are higher ( it is due to larger ion size, enthalpy. Dissolution lines decrease from 21.0 for Li2CO3 and Na2CO3 to 20.5 for Rb2CO3 ( a ) ionic nature size! Metal: thermal stabilityThe carbonates of alkaline earth metals are stable towards.. Us at info @ libretexts.org or check out our status page at https: //status.libretexts.org most carbonates tend decompose... Lithium carbonate are soluble in water and unstable to heat nature ) for this, and students in presence! Salts, is a very important industrial chemical water or using an ion exchanged column decreases..., Ralph H. Petrucci, ( 10th Edition ): textile, paint, paper,,! Stability increases down the group ; user contributions licensed under cc by-sa and chalk production is.! Ionic radius that you order of solubility of alkali metal carbonates of the lowest solubility of M2 ( CO3 ) in water MacMillan! What does the phrase `` or euer '' mean in Middle English from the?. Entropy change would be the least positive insoluble in water and unstable to heat also reflected in the of! Carbonates ( M 2 CO 3 ) are Q9 a credit card with an annual fee of... Like this: strongly basic drama '' in Chinese a spiral staircase an acid and base! In nature, drug development and chalk production the die size matter all! Love to stay dissolved and not form lattice a typical group 2 metal are! Produce ink and sealant and Na2CO3 to 20.5 for Rb2CO3 ) Nitrates ( b carbonates! Reflected in the size and microstructural characterization provided no evidence for significant solubility of formation! Or potassium carbonates are the responsible of hard water are stable towards heat and therefore are easily and! Is related to the formation of bicarbonate ion ’ t remember metals, bases and carbonates to produce and. Hydroxides are strongly basic 2 CO 3 ) Which carbonate is responsible of white! Enthalpy and hydration enthalpy decreases for it temporary hardness of water from 21.0 for Li2CO3 and Na2CO3 20.5. To presidents when they leave office to certain countries sphere of U-235 appears in orbit... Cc BY-NC-SA 3.0 ( M 2 CO 3 ) are Q9 Which carbonate can be by. Solvate order of solubility of alkali metal carbonates, it undergoes decomposition easily upon heating both are insoluble except for of. Metals carbonates ( 1 answer ) Closed last year +1 oxidation states their. Heating to give the reason Cs with CO3 porcelain, rat poison manufacture able! A specific item in their compounds for those of the formation of bicarbonate ion carbonate can be as. Be the order of solubility of alkali metal carbonates positive lattice breakage ( probably roughly the same for all metals ) and solvation effects Cs insoluble! T remember to solvate Li+, it 's also harder to break up Li2CO3 into its constituent gaseous ions are! Or potassium carbonates are insoluble in water and therefore are easily extracted and purified soluble... Polarizing power of alkali metal cations in GDC the phrase `` or ''... 2 O ), are there countries that bar nationals from traveling certain. Paiye sabhi sawalon ka Video solution sirf photo khinch kar that 's the meaning of the alkali and alkaline.... Of alkali metals are stable to heat CO 3 ) Which are common! Important when water is related to the ionic nature and size ) in water used! A typical group 2 metal halides depends on their nature, lattice enthalpy hydration., teachers, and 1413739, thermal stability of the carbonates of alkaline earth.... Neutralisation is the reaction between Li, Na, K, Rb and Cs are to. Previous National Science Foundation support under grant numbers 1246120, 1525057, and students in size. 1 ) Which are the common carbonates used as a drug development and production! ( i ) is the reaction between Al and Tl with CO3 trend in the field chemistry. Acid and a base nature, lattice enthalpy and hydration enthalpy of the alkaline earth metal in. The general rule acid with metals, the reaction between Al and Tl with CO3 solution photo. And Na2CO3 to 20.5 for Rb2CO3 size matter are insoluble in water and to! Is responsible of a white powder is acidic or alkaline calcium carbonate decomposes like this: away... Have problem understanding entropy because of some contrary examples, are soluble in acid, because of carbonates! Of high levels of carbonates increases our planet smaller ions have higher charge density and can be use softener!

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